The book I read to research this post was Voyage Of The Beagle by Charles Darwin which is an excellent book which I got from the library.
Charles Darwin was born in shrewsbury and attended Edinburgh University & Christs College in Cambridge. He completed his degree in 1831 and soon aterwards made a 5 year voyage on HMS Beagle which travelled around the world but in particular studied the coastline of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego in South America. He had some of his letters published in scientific journals and became a bit of a celebrity. He became a fellow of the Royal Society in 1839. For most of the rest of his life he was developing and writing about his theory of natural selection. It is basically survival of the fittest whereby if a genetic feature is useful it is kept but if it is useless it dies out. He married his wife Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and spent many years at Down House in Kent. He died in 1882 and is buried in Westminster Abbey.