The book I read to research this post was The British Empire A Very Short Introduction by Ashley Jackson that is a very good book which I bought from kindle. The British Empire comprised a 1/4 of the world’s land mass and over 500 million people. If you include countries Britain occupied for shorter periods and countries where Britain installed compliant governments or rulers the it is around 1/3 of the world’s countries. Many have left the commonwealth subsequently and one thing not many realize is the British Empire was less cruel than other empires and in a lot of cases it was about money where as money as the goods and supplies rolled in Britain would often leave the rulers to their own devices. Uprisings were a different matter with Britain crushing them ruthlessly and often putting the leaders in exile. World War 2 is an excellent example of how when Britain went to war she could mobilize huge numbers of commonwealth troops. Even nowadays there are the Ghurkas a left over from Britain’s colonial days in India who are a part of the British Army and fought for example in The Falkland’s War. Nowadays much of the Commonwealth has either gone independent or like in the case of Hong Kong been handed over to another country with a stronger claim over it. The British Army in peacetime has rarely numbered more than 200,000 and is relatively small considering Britain’s population. They have maintained bases in key positions like Gibraltar and Cyprus. One thing is that at one time freight from Commonwealth countries at one time could only be carried by British Merchant ships giving us the biggest fleet in the world and this meant a ready supply of sailors and ships in times of war. More recently the armed forces have become more a rapid deployment force if there is trouble in other countries than an anti-invasion force which they feel isn’t necessary. One controversial aspect has been that when Britain has taken a country they have often brought unwelcome diseases like smallpox and syphillus and often populations have been decimated and replaced with white people. Also often they haven’t kept local names for locations and given them British names, often names from places in Great Britain. I really enjoyed this book which is well written and very educational.
Tags: book reviews, books, british history, great britain, history, politics, textbooks, the british empire, the commonwealth, world history
Tags: book reviews, books, british history, history, railway disasters, railway signalling, railways, steam locomotives, steam trains, textbooks, transport
The book I read to research this post was Obstruction Danger by Adrian Vaughan which is a very good book which I bought from a local secondhand bookstore. This book is a kind of history of railway from 1890 – 1986 and looks at over 30 railway accidents and their causes with in this period. The book was published in 1989 and the start point 1890 is significant because there was a major accident in Armagh, Northern Ireland in 1889 caused by a runaway train without air brakes that couldn’t stop. It caused a public outcry and an act of parliament was passed forcing the various railway companies to adopt safety measures like airbrakes on the coaches and wagons, interlocking signals which nowadays are electrically powered and the token system on portions of single track. This act was the most significant event in the history of British railways until they were amalgamated in to major groups in 1921. The railway companies had a very difficult time incorporating these measures into their networks. There was a shortage of companies and trained workers capable of building interlocking signals. They had to meet a deadline which even if they could train people and get them to do the jobs would mean laying off many of these people once the job was done. Interlocking signals are signal levers that are dependent on each other and will only let you pull them in a certain order. This was very advanced technology at the time. Another factor was the cost of implementing all these measures at a time when most railway companies weren’t making a lot of money and felt they could maybe do it gradually but doing it to a deadline was out of the question. I really enjoyed reading this book and it’s amazing how something that can seem trivial like the signalmen not logging twice in the logbook when a train passes through can contribute to accidents. A lot of more recent accidents were caused by insufficient training and experience. At one time signal men spent years doing one job and knew it inside out. There was an incident where a signalmen had a weeks instruction on working signals and then left to do it. I would recommend this book and if you see it for sale cheap could be a good buy.
Tags: america, book reviews, books, california, railways, san francisco, steam locomotives, steam trains, textbooks, the usa, trains, transport
The book I read to research this post was Nothing Like It In The World by Stephen E Ambrose which is a very good book which I bought from a local secondhand bookstore. This book is the story of the Pacific Railroad which was built in the 19th Century and was the first railroad across the USA going all the way to San Francisco. It was able to link some quite big cities which wouldn’t have been the case had it gone ie to Los Angeles where it would have been going across mostly. Lincoln who was largely responsible for the passing of the bill allowing the railway was a railway profession as well as US President. They only used 10,000 chinese labourers which you can compare to the Trans- Siberian which used 200,000 chinese labourers and hundreds of thousands of prisoners and took much longer to complete. The Pacific Railroad was built very efficiently. It was built in just 6 years and there were many enormous challenges like at one point it reaches 5,000 feet, 2,000 feet below the mountains summit. They had to make these inclines very gradual often taking several miles to allow the steam trains to climb. Many of the chinese labourers heard rumours there were 50 feet snakes that could devour someone whole and native americans who were cannibals. There was no basis for these and one of the bosses sent sent 22 chinese labourers out to see for themselves which helped to quell it. In the very early days the rails were made from hard wood which then gave way to iron which was used for this railway. They raised the money by selling shares which proved to be an excellent and safe investment for many years. I really enjoyed this book which is written a little like a novel. It tells the story in detail and I would definitely recommend it and it is around 400 pages.
Tags: armed forces, army, book reviews, books, great britain, history, iraq, kuwait, textbooks, the first gulf war, the sas
I am reviewing the war memoir book Sabre Squadron by Cameron Spence which is a very good book which I bought from a local secondhand bookstore. This is a true story of an SAS mission that occurred during the First Gulf War and was the longest mission ever undertaken by SAS soldiers at 6 weeks. The mission was part of the search for Scud missiles in the wake of Iraq attacking Israel with these in the hope of breaking the Arab part of the coalition which was essential if the armed forces amassed in Saudi Arabia were going to oust Iraq from Kuwait. It was ultimately successful and Israel wasn’t drawn into the war but SAS soldiers on the ground in Iraq had to find the mobile Scud sites. The permanent Scud missile sites were taken out quite early on and the Iraqis smuggled the missiles to the sites in buses under the Allied Forces noses. Once they SAS found the sites they often had to use a laser guider to guide the bombs in. In this particular mission they thought they were dealing with 30 soldiers and it was actually more like 300 and one of the land rovers thought a place with barbed wire and concrete structures which are always bad signs was deserted and it turned out they got ambushed and if they had turned around would have been killed so had to slam the vehicle in reverse and make a speedy exit. I think if you enjoy books by Chris Ryan and Andy McNab you will be in your element. It has lots of delicious details about warfare and I think will especially appeal to anyone considering a career in the army or soldiers. I really enjoyed this book and Cameron Spence was a NCO in the SAS who carried out this mission. It rivals books like Bravo Two Zero. It’s an enjoyable read and is a decent length at around 400 pages.
Tags: armed forces, army, book reviews, books, british history, great britain, history, insurgency, military history, textbooks
The book I read to research this post was British Military Operations 1945-85 which is an excellent book which I bought from a car boot sale. This book was published around 1986 and covers the various theatres of conflict Britain has been involved in, in quite a lot of detail and is quite informative. Britain at least up until 1985 had been involved in armed conflict somewhere in the world every year with the exception of 1968. Britain has a relatively small but extremely capable army that has unsurpassed experience in dealing with terrorists or insurgents. Most of these conflicts the British armed forces have achieved notable victories. There were conflicts like the Mau Mau rebellion in Kenya when they had to move all the villagers out of the war zone when the civilians weren’t too happy but even in that they did have success in dealing with the Mau Mau. One thing they did was use ex Mau Mau who had changed sides to hunt down the others in small groups often accompanied with one soldier. They had a lot of success with this in the Boer War too. The enemy would have no idea if these units were friendly or not and could be captured etc. In Northern Ireland a ploy used by the security services was taking people off the street and questioning but because they couldn’t interrogate them they let them contribute information if they wanted to. This was done on such a large scale the PIRA couldn’t work out who had told them what as they were overwhelmed with the number of people involved. I learned a lot from this book and it is a very interesting read certainly worth the 50 p I paid for it. If you see it for sale secondhand I definitely recommend it. Britain wanted wealth from the empire just after World War 2 to help pay off the loans from America but gradually decided the best path was to let her subject countries become independent which allowed her to scale back her military. As with things like the Suez Crisis she couldn’t stick to one policy and couldn’t accept the Egyptians nationalizing the Suez Canal. This was partly to pay for the Aswan Dam which the West was threatening to pull the finance for. Britain in particular feared British ships might be banned from the canal. It wasn’t just loss of earnings. Of course at this time Britain just couldn’t afford to fight a war and hadn’t thought it out properly.
Tags: agincourt, book reviews, books, history, john keegan, military history, somme, textbooks, warfare, waterloo
The book I read to research this post was The Face Of Battle by John Keegan which is a very good book which I bought from kindle. This book takes an indepth look at 3 great British battles, Agincourt, Waterloo & the Somme. The first 2 were successful for Britain and the last was a bit of a stalemate. Keegan writes absolutely brilliant history books mostly from around the 2 World Wars. Agincourt along with the somewhat similar battle Crecy is the kind of battle at first glance makes you proud to be British and was between them and the French. The French outnumbered the English but there cavalry hesitated big time in a relatively narrow space were due to the mud the horses were sinking and they were slain by archers. The British longbowmen had a reputation for being lethal. The resultant prisoners were mostly slain due to there larger numbers as the British thought they might pick up weapons and start fighting again. At Waterloo some of the soldiers most notably the Belgians were allowed to leave with out being captured despite losing the battle and many of these soldiers fought in other battles so in hindsight it was probably the wrong decision. At the Somme in World War 1 most of the shells fired by the British were shrapnell containing lots of steel balls due to a shortage of high explosive but this did little damage to the German fortifications. Many of the British were mowed down by machine guns as they advanced and gains despite the heavy losses were minimal. A lot of lessons were at least learned from this offensive that were applied to later battles. I did really enjoy this book and it’s a substantial length with lots of useful information. Keegan is one of my favorite history book authors.
Tags: austria, book reviews, books, europe, history, medicine, psychology, textbooks, viktor frankl, world war 2
The book I read to research this post was Man’s Search For Ultimate Meaning by Viktor Frankl which is a very good book which I bought from kindle. This book is the follow up to Man’s Search For Meaning also by Viktor Frankl and the best book I have ever read. In that book it was about his experiences in a concentration camp during World War 2 and how he found meaning to his existence whilst there which led to him developing logotherapy and becoming a celebrated psychiatrist and psycho therapist. One man went to him devastated about his wife’s death which had left him alone. Viktor told him he should think that he is suffering instead of his wife and has spared her this ordeal. One thing he often focuses on is a life has to have meaning and an example of this is lab rats had a lever that every time they pressed it produced food. At first they ate lots and lots of food but then it lost its meaning and they went off food and sex. It is only by having sad experiences we can appreciate the good times. Everything is relative. In a concentration they enjoyed great happiness eating a bit of stale bread because they were starving and if they had been well fed would have turned their noses up at it. Another thing is expectations where we expect something and if it disappoints we are upset but if it exceeds our expectations no matter how little we expect are happy. This is only a short book of around 150 pages and Viktor is from Vienna in Austria which of course was invaded by Hitler during World War 2. This is a very interesting book and I enjoyed reading it.
Tags: ancient history, andrew collins, biblical history, book reviews, books, europe, gobekeii tepe, gobekli tepe, history, megalithic man, textbooks, the bible, turkey
The book I read to research this post was Gobekeii Tepe: Genesis Of The Gods by Andrew Collins which is an excellent book which I bought from kindle. Gobekeii Tepe was discovered in 1994 and is a remote part of South West Turkey and is the earliest archaeological construction in the world. Some historians have claimed we will find things like the Akashic Vaults which are records of human consciousness and thought to be in Egypt but this is more exciting. The Gobekeii Tepe is a series of megalithics on a huge scale that were probably by hundreds of organized workers in 9,400 BC & that is 7,000 years before the time of Abraham. Andrew reckons beings came to Earth from outer space and this was the site of the Garden of Eden built by aliens rather than a God. It is a fascinating book. Apparently a farmer found broken stones whilst ploughing with inscriptions on them and notified the nearest museums in 1984 but it took them until 1994 to get back to him. One things it shows is at the time the local must have had an organized society with agriculture to support the thousands of visitors it received. When this was built and it was lined up with the stars, there was a different pole star called Deneb and there is a hole in one of the stones thought to be aligned with it. The stones were quarried many miles away and we know among the things they worshipped was the volcanic rock/mineral obsidian and in some cases this was highly polished to make the first mirrors. This obsidian was transported hundreds of miles. We know among other things they drilled agate gem stones with diamond drills to thread them into necklaces. Andrew tends to write books on the occult and paranormal and I think this book which is his most recent publication is one of his best. I really enjoyed reading it and found it very interesting. There are also inscriptions on the rocks of creatures that didn’t live in the area and the nearest water source was 3 miles away. There isn’t known to have been any kind of water pipeline which makes you wonder how they supplied the workers and visitors.
Tags: armed forces, book reviews, books, british history, history, royal navy, submarines, textbooks, warfare, warships, world war 2
The book I read to research this post was Modern Sea Power by Bernard Brett which is an excellent book which I bought from a car boot sale. This book was written at the height of the Cold War so apart from looking at the history of navies tends to look at the rivalry between NATO & the Soviet Bloc. Bernard is an art teacher who has a strong interest in the navies of the world and I think he has done a commendable job with this book. Much of it looks at the 2 World Wars and it is around 250 pages so is a reasonable length with sumptious photos. The book mostly looks at the development of the modern navy which started with HMS Dreadnought in 1905 which was the first ship to have big guns and heavy armament and of course the dreadnought class of ships was named after her. In World War 2 American ships were limited to 61,000 tons which was all that could pass through the Panama Canal & the Japanese took advantage of this with their Yamamoto Class 72,000 ton ships though which only saw limited production. Another big development in World War 2 was the submarine and the German developed an engine for these which was high performance and used hydrogen peroxide instead of pressurized oxygen to provide combustion. After the Americans looked at nuclear power with the potential that the submarine could almost run indefinitely underwater. Yet another big development has been the change from battleship to aircraft carrier as the most expensive ship in a fleet. The British developed a kind of catapult that would launch a Hurricane aircraft into the air and the fact it couldn’t land and the pilot had to bail out once the enemy had been destroyed was seen as an acceptable loss. Many of the Atlantic convoys had this. It was primarily to take care of enemy battleships. The periscope which allowed a submarine to run submerged but at the same time be able to see above the surface was a Dutch invention during World War 2. Around that time Britain had more merchant shipping than any other nation but they were catching up rapidly. This was largely due to the British Empire. I really enjoyed reading this book which is on an interesting topic and the author has done a good job with it.